23 February 2017
As NASA announced a couple of days ago,
The exact wording is from Yediot Achronot. The Hebrew for "star" is כּוֹכָב kochav. A planet is פְּלָנֶטָה planeta, or כּוֹכַב לֶכֶת kochav lechet, literally "walking star" (לֶכֶת is the bare infinitive of לָלֶכֶת lalechet "to go", here used as noun), or, when the context is clear, simply כּוֹכָב kochav.
The word כוכב occurs in Hebrew as early as in the Torah, for example in Bereshit 1:16 (the transliteration is given according to the Modern Hebrew rules):
Not commenting on the Biblical Hebrew grammar here, note also the word מָאוֹר ma'or "light, celestial body".
The planet Earth is כַּדּוּר הָאָרֶץ kadur ha-aretz, literally "the Earth-ball".
Space in general is חָלָל chalal or, when one wants to be more specific that one is talking about the outer space, הֶחָלָל הַחִיצוֹן ha-chalal ha-chitzon (he-chalal in pedantic speech). A spaceship is חֲלָלִית chalalit.
Below is the table with the names of some celestial bodies - some of them have Hebrew names that are different from Latin / international ones:
|English||Hebrew (native word)||Hebrew ("international" word)|
|Moon||יָרֵחַ yareach (also in general sense, e.g. in ירחי צדק yerechei tzedek "moons of Jupiter")
לְבָנָה levana (poetic)
|Mercury||כּוֹכַב חַמָּה kochav chama
(lit. "star of heat")
(and the Roman god is מֶרְקוּרְיוּס merkuryus)
|Venus||נֹגַהּ ~ נוגה nogah
(lit. "glow, brightness")
|וֶנוּס venus (mostly refers to the goddess)|
|מַרְס mars (the god)|
|יוּפִּיטֶר yupiter (mostly refers to the god)|
|Saturn||שַׁבְּתַאי shabtai (also a male name)||סָטוּרְן saturn (mostly refers to the god)|
|Uranus||אוֹרוֹן oron (lit. "little light")
|Neptune||רַהַב rahav (lit. "arrogance")
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